In this content, we examined the Tanzimat Period, in which modernization was the most prominent policy in the Ottoman Empire, and the innovations and reforms made in this period. We answered questions such as what is the Tanzimat Period and what are the characteristics of the Tanzimat Period. We have compiled the Tanzimat Literature for you, including the 1st Tanzimat Period and the 2nd Tanzimat Period.
The Tanzimat Period was a period in which many innovations and reforms took place. Many policies in the name of modernization For the first time in Turkish history Done. This period, in the Ottoman Empire and Turkish history the beginning of the constitutionalization process is accepted as
The succession of social and cultural reforms also greatly affected art. Therefore, after the decree Tanzimat Literature divided into two periods. 1. Tanzimat Period and 2. Tanzimat Period These two periods, which are called as Despite all the differences, these periods also have some similar features. Come together What is the Tanzimat Period?Let’s answer questions such as when and what kind of period was it and examine what is known about Tanzimat Literature.
Let’s start with the most basic: What is the Tanzimat Period?
The Tanzimat Period, which started with the declaration of the Tanzimat Edict of innovations, right and freedom It is a time of intense emotions. During this period, many legal reforms were made and equal rights and freedoms were given to all Ottoman citizens.
During the term Ottomanism and westernism Policies were developed under the leadership of currents of thought. After the French Revolution, some minorities declared their independence from the Ottoman Empire with their increasing nation-state demands. In order to prevent the loss of land and power, the idea of Ottomanism was centered and equal rights and freedoms were given to all citizens. Although the aim was to ensure the loyalty of the minorities to the Ottoman Empire, the aim was not achieved. Most of the minorities did not feel that they belonged to the Ottoman Empire.
When was the Tanzimat period?
As we mentioned at the beginning of our content the Tanzimat periodIt started with the declaration of the Tanzimat Fermanı. Proclaimed on November 3, 1839 Tanzimat edict Many concepts were deeply affected in terms of social and cultural aspects.
During this reform process, one of the most affected art branches was literature. The Tanzimat Literature, which was divided into 2 periods by the authors, contained many different views. First semester from 1860 to 1876, Second Tanzimat Literature Period l. Including the declaration of the Constitutional Monarchy from 1876 to 1895 it took. Let’s take a closer look at these two literary periods.
What are the characteristics of Tanzimat Literature in this period?
1. Characteristics of the Tanzimat Literature period:
- Although the artists of the period criticized the divan literature, they could not get rid of its influence.
- Concepts such as homeland, nation, right, law, justice and freedom took their place in literary works for the first time.
- The first works in the western sense were given in this period.
- The first examples of genres in our literature such as novel, modern story, theatre, newspaper, article, criticism and memoir were given in this period.
- Literature was seen as a tool to educate and raise awareness of the society.
- Most of the artists stated that the language should be simplified, but no action was taken during the period.
- Most writers and poets of the period were also state administrators. Bureaucrats played an active role in literature.
- He was influenced by the literary movements of classicism (Şinasi, Ahmet Vefik Pasha) and romanticism (Namik Kemal, Ahmet Mithat).
1. Tanzimat Literature had a structure that criticized the old literary features. In line with the policies of the period, an innovative attitude was adopted by the artists. Some of the most important writers of the period Sinasi, Namik Kemal, Ziya Pasha, Ahmet Mithat Efendi, Semsettin Sami and Ahmet Vefik Pashais .
One of the most important developments in this period, in which the first examples of many literary genres were given by artists, was the establishment of the first private newspaper. in our history first private newspaper the one which… Tercüman-i Ahvalwas founded on October 22, 1860 by Agah Efendi and Şinasi.
The articles of Ahmed Vefik Pasha, Ziya Pasha and Refik Bey were frequently published in this newspaper. In these articles, the reasons for the backwardness of the Ottoman society and what was going on in the country were discussed. In the newspaper, where literary works were also published, Şinasi’nin Şair Evlenen, the first Western-style Turkish play, was also published as a written series. The newspaper was closed for two weeks in May 1861 due to an article criticizing the education system. This event The first example of stopping broadcasts in the Turkish press it happened. Tercüman-ı Ahval newspaper ceased publication on March 11, 1866.
2. Characteristics of the Tanzimat Literature period:
- Since it was in the Oppression Period, literature moved away from the people. Mostly works for the elite were produced.
- Unlike the previous period, the language has been considerably aggravated.
- Art is for art, the view was adopted.
- Individual subjects were returned, and works reflecting the inner world of the individual were written.
- Theatrical works were written to be read.
- During this period, realism and naturalism were seen as dominant movements.
- Journalism lost its social influence and function in the first period due to the Depression Period. Political and social articles leave their place to ordinary daily events.
- Articles dealing with social problems were replaced by articles written for literary purposes.
- Similar to the previous period, syllabic meter was tried during the period, but aruz meter continued to dominate. The number of artists who preferred the verse forms of Divan Literature decreased.
- Artists, “Everything beautiful can be the subject of poetry.” defended the idea. Individual subjects were discussed as the subject of the poem.
- Compared to the First Tanzimat Literature Period, more qualified works were produced, and genres such as novels and short stories developed.
- With the effect of realism movement, observation was given importance, events and people were explained with a more realistic understanding.
- Important artists of the period, Nabizade Nazım, were influenced by naturalism, Recaizade Mahmut Ekrem and Samipaşazade Sezai were influenced by realism, and Abdülhak Hamit Tarhan was influenced by romanticism.
2. Artists of Tanzimat Period Literature: Recaizade Mahmut Ekrem, Abdulhak Hamit Tarhan, Samipasazade Sezai, Nabizade Nazim, Teacher Naci, Director Mr. Ali and Ahmet Cevdet Pashais . On the other hand, Muallim Naci, who wrote works in the second period, was the only supporter of Divan Literature in his period.
Works written during the period Dominion Period Due to this reason, it has been written away from social events and social issues.
What are the innovations and reforms of the Tanzimat Period?
- Edict of Reform was declared.
- Provincial councils were established.
- The method of collecting tithe through tax farming was abolished and it was decided to collect it by the Ministry of Finance. This decision was a development that supported the modernization process of the state.
- The task of determining the amount of jizya was given to the patriarchate.
- The first paper money, called Kaime, was issued. In addition to this development, many steps were taken towards the modern banking system.
- The first foreign debt was taken from England, which was our ally in many matters at that time, during the Crimean War.
- The Izmir-Aydin line, the first railway line, was established.
- The first telegraph school was opened.
- The Ministry of Education was established. Schools were categorized as primary, secondary, high school and college.
- School of civil service was opened to train teacher schools and bureaucrats.
- Girls were admitted to schools for the first time.
- In addition to the Shari’ah laws, Western-style laws were made, thus standardizing the legal system.
- For the first time, a sultan limited his authority by recognizing his own rule of law.
- Private property rights were granted to all Ottoman citizens.
The 19th century, in which modernization and reforms took place most intensely in our history, has many firsts in it. Especially in the Tanzimat Era paving the way for women in education, to the separation of powers and to the rule of law Many reforms were made.
Who are the sultans of the Tanzimat period?
- Abdulmecid I (1839 – 1861)
- Abdulaziz (1861 – 1876)
- Murad V (30 May 1876 – 31 August 1876)
- II. Abdulhamid (1876 – 1909)
The Tanzimat Period, which started with the Tanzimat Edict in the reign of Abdülmecid I, includes four different sultans. Abdulmecid I enthroned after AbdulazizHe was deposed by the coup of May 30, 1876. Although the putschists were mentally unstable, they were enthroned. Murad V.After several months of administration of On the condition of declaring the Constitutional Monarchy they agreed II. Abdulhamidhe put on the throne.
II. Abdulhamid in 1878 shut down parliament and suspended the constitution. Thus, Istibdat printing period it has begun. These radical changes have deeply affected Turkish literature and society socially.
Conclusion: What was the Tanzimat Period for the Ottoman Empire?
throughout Turkish history first time a monarch recognizes the rule of law restricted their powers. Tanzimat is seen by some historians as the first example of the separation of powers in our history.
During this period, many steps were taken for the formation of a modern state structure, and the functioning of state institutions was systematized. Modern institutions and ministries were established in the fields of education and economy. All Ottoman citizens rights and freedoms brought to an equal position. However, Turkish Literature, which was affected by innovations and reforms, developed and modernized considerably. The effect of the Tanzimat on literature was divided into two different periods, and many different literary works were brought to our literature in two separate periods.
In this period, which started with the Tanzimat Edict, although many reforms were made to connect minorities to the Ottoman Empire, some minorities continued their nation-state aspirations. Ottomanism and westernism The policies created by centered on the currents of ideas could not bring the desired result.