When the Republic was established, the majority of the population lived in villages. There was no school or literacy in the villages. Atatürk, the father of the Republic, aimed to create a civilized society from an agricultural society. He brought social, economic, political and cultural transformations to the society with his revolutions; He provided the institutionalization of the Republic, which he idealized, to a large extent.
According to Atatürk, it is only possible for the people to experience revolutions with the Republic. It was possible by protecting the Republic and these revolutions. This could only be achieved if the people were educated, conscious and free-willed.
This is exactly why Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, He had rolled up his sleeves to make the people, most of whom lived in villages, more educated and conscious. For the people living in poverty, this education problem could be provided with a unique education model. He also did what was necessary.
An education system was developed by the Swiss politician Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, which is a fundamental right for everyone, based on love and the student, and envisaging the education of orphaned and poor children.
İsmail Hakkı Tonguç and students.
Atatürk sent the educator İsmail Hakkı Tonguç to Switzerland to study this system of Pestalozzi. Tonguç stayed in Switzerland for 6 months and studied the education given at the school. When you return to the country He was brought to the General Directorate of Primary Education by the order of Atatürk. (August 3, 1935) Tonguç formed a team to solve this education problem in village schools and started the necessary studies.
As his first job, he opened an instructor course in Mahmudiye in July 1936. The talented village children who did their military service as sergeants and corporals were selected and taken to this course, and when the course was over, they were sent to their villages in an educated manner.
On June 11, 1937, the Village Educators Law No. 3238 was enacted and trainer schools were established. Village children were now being educated.
Established on 11 November 1938, II. by the Celal Bayar Government. Hasan Ali Yücel, an experienced educator, on the illness of the Minister of National Education Saffet Arıkan.brought to the Ministry of Education. Yücel and Tonguç, while Atatürk addressed the teachers in Istanbul on July 7, 1927:
“Teachers, taking advantage of every opportunity, should run to the people, be with the people and explain to the people that the teacher is not just a being who makes the child read the alphabet.Education project based on the understanding of education that he said “Village Institute Project” they developed. The bill was passed on April 17, 1940 with the votes of 278 deputies and became law.
The Republican People’s Party won the first multi-party elections held on July 21, 1946, but rumors emerged that would make İnönü nervous about the election results, and the first blow came to the Village Institutes.
With the suggestion of President İnönü, Kazım Karabekir, who displayed an attitude against the Village Institutes, was elected as the Speaker of the Assembly. Founding Minister of Village Institutes in the established government Resat Şemsettin Sirer, who was against the institutes instead of Hasan Ali Yücel, The Minister of National Education is made. The institutes are in the hands of Sirer, who is fundamentally opposed to these schools; more precisely, the lamb was delivered to the wolf.
In later times With the closure of Hasanoğlan High Village Institute on 27 November 1947 Village Institutes are closed intellectually if not actually. Actually, we start the movie here to show the main parts a little more clearly.
watched in institutes By putting an end to practical training, education is standardized, schools are turned into flat high schools, and over time, institutes disappear one by one.
Just as communist ideas are inculcated and non-religious education is given to children in Village Institutes. groundless rumors had been laid out. Sirer, the education minister of the time, said that closing the institutes was a blessing bestowed upon him, and he also complained that the education given in these institutions confused the minds of the children.
It entered our lives as an enlightenment project in its short life. Village InstitutesIt aimed to raise free and willed citizens who are aware of their rights and responsibilities, who are beneficial to the country and who can bring their own interests and the interests of the country together on a common ground. In this context, education, which is the golden key to reaching a modern civilization level, was also intended to be implemented with these institute models.
“Learning by doing” In addition to the education model that has adopted the principle of education, both scientific and theoretical education, which we look at with envy at the moment. It was very similar to Finland’s educational model.
What could have happened in our country if education and training had continued as planned?
When we look at the starting point, we can see that it is a very impressive and important initiative. Primarily a conscious society This model of education was the basis of the upbringing. People living in villages would be aware of their rights and responsibilities.
Maybe we’re discussing today No subject, both religious and ethnic, would be discussed today. If the institutes had continued today, this political turmoil we are in would not exist.
People in our country would not be marginalized as the other, the other, the religious, the irreligious, the right or the left. People who grew up with humanistic feelings would be more respectful and loving towards themselves and their country. landlordism and the sovereignty of the sect sheikhs would be lost.. People could cast their votes with their free and conscious will, without being subject to any influence.
Türkiye will develop faster; all the people would be able to belong to the Republic.
People living in the countryside and deprived of many things even today, especially the folk sect sheikhs; “The Republic took care of us and gave us our freedom,” he could have protected the Republic and its revolutions. He would progress rapidly on the way to the level of modern civilization that Atatürk set as his goal.
The beginning of the collapse in education that we are in today started with the 1950s. The implementation of Kemalist modern education principles in Village Institutes and the very fruitful results disturbed those who were against the revolutions from the very beginning but were afraid of Atatürk and İnönü. In the words of Adnan Menderes:Village Institutes create an image of a smarter citizen than the ruling class. This is unacceptable.”
If we could continue the revolutions and Village Institutes initiated by Atatürk, we could be a leading country in science, technology and democracy today.
We could be a society that is prominent in agriculture today, since everything starts with education. The Netherlands, which has a surface area as our province of Konya, Do you think that the biggest share in being the most developed agricultural country today is just because it has fertile lands? No, their ability to use agriculture and technology quite logically and intelligently.
How is the Netherlands, with an area the size of Konya, can grow more agricultural products than the whole of Turkey?
Moreover, when we were a state with an agricultural society in our past, not being able to use and evaluate the land well over time has blocked the way of a good export and economy. If Village Institutes were today, they are now about agriculture. We could be a world-speaking country, we could live in economic prosperity.
Unfortunately, Turkey’s biggest civilization project was blocked by negligence. If the Republic of Turkey could realize the revolutions foreseen today, it would be at a very civilized level socially, economically, politically and socially. However, we handed over the Village Institutes to imperialism, ignorance and vote concerns.
If we had resisted, we could have had many intellectuals and scientists right now. Revolution cars can also be owned by our Kayseri aircraft factory. and today we could be talking about nice things instead of so many useless things. But if we could own it…
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